El papel del envejecimiento en el desarrollo de enfermedades cardiovasculares asociadas a patologías renales

Autores/as

  • Matilde Alique Aguilar Departamento de Biología de Sistemas, Universidad de Alcalá (IRYCIS)
  • Guillermo Bodega Departamento de Biomedicina y Biotecnología, Universidad de Alcalá
  • Rafael Ramírez Departamento de Biología de Sistemas, Universidad de Alcalá (IRYCIS)
  • Julia Carracedo Departamento de Genética, Fisiología y Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid; Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Hospital 12 de Octubre (imas12)

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.37536/RIECS.2020.5.1.200

Palabras clave:

Enfermedades cardiovasculares, Enfermedad renal crónica, Envejecimiento, Senescencia endotelial

Resumen

El envejecimiento es considerado un factor de riesgo para el desarrollo de enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV), y el proceso de senescencia endotelial es el desencadenante de patologías isquémicas y ECV como la arteriosclerosis y la enfermedad renal crónica (ERC). En la senescencia endotelial, las células endoteliales pierden su capacidad de proliferación por el efecto de agentes lesivos como el estrés oxidativo y/o la inflamación generada en el proceso de envejecimiento. Las patologías cardiovasculares, junto al desarrollo de calcificaciones en la pared vascular, presentan una incidencia y prevalencia entre los enfermos con ERC muy superior a la que se observa en la población general. El desarrollo de calcificaciones cardiovasculares es un hallazgo habitual en los enfermos con ERC, sobre todo cuando estos enfermos requieren terapia renal sustitutiva con hemodiálisis (HD). De hecho, entre estos pacientes, las ECV constituyen la principal causa de morbi-mortalidad, aunque numerosas evidencias indican un carácter plurietiológico para las ECV en los enfermos con ERC. El incremento de estas patologías entre los enfermos en HD sugiere que existen elementos inherentes a la propia HD que actúan como factor patogénico en el desarrollo de las ECV. La caracterización de estos factores para desarrollar elementos de ayuda diagnóstica que permitan identificar enfermos en HD en riesgo de padecer ECV, y desarrollar terapias que eviten el desarrollo de estas patologías es el objetivo de nuestro grupo de investigación.

Citas

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30-05-2020

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