Avances en el diagnóstico de la malaria en los programas de eliminación de la enfermedad

Autores/as

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.37536/RIECS.2021.6.S1.244

Palabras clave:

Microscopía de malaria, Diagnóstico molecular de malaria, Pruebas rápidas de malaria, Hemozoína, Programas de erradicación de malaria, Eliminación de malaria

Resumen

Uno de los aspectos clave de las estrategias actuales de control, eliminación y erradicación de la malaria es aumentar la capacidad de detección de la enfermedad con métodos cada vez más sencillos y robustos que puedan aplicarse fácilmente en el terreno. Para lograr este objetivo, es necesario mejorar la sensibilidad de la microscopía clásica con métodos de concentración de hematíes infectados, utilizar test rápidos ultrasensibles de última generación o técnicas moleculares como el LAMP, que no requieren termocicladores y pueden utilizarse en las zonas endémicas. Los sistemas diagnósticos basados en la atracción magnética de la hemozoína son una opción atractiva también para el cribado poblacional.

Citas

World Health Organization. World malaria report 2020: 20 years of global progress and challenges. 2020.

Tanner M, Greenwood B, Whitty CJ, Ansah EK, Price RN, Dondorp AM, et al. Malaria eradication and elimination: views on how to translate a vision into reality. BMC medicine 4. 2015;13(1):167.

Feachem RG, Chen I, Akbari O, Bertozzi-Villa A, Bhatt S, Binka F, et al. Malaria eradication within a generation: ambitious, achievable, and necessary. The Lancet 2019;394(10203):1056-1112.

Cuadros J, Martin-Ran P, Merino FJ, Delgado-Irribarren A, Garcia-Bujalance S, Rubio JM. Malaria diagnosis by NOW ICT and expert microscopy in comparison with multiplex polymerase chain reaction in febrile returned travellers. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2007 September 01;26(9):671-673.

Cuadros J, Ramírez AM, González IJ, Ding XC, Tanoira RP, Rojo-Marcos G, et al. LAMP kit for diagnosis of non-falciparum malaria in Plasmodium ovale infected patients. Malaria journal 2017;16(1):1-5.

Cuadros J, Perez-Tanoira R, Prieto-Perez L, Martin-Martin I, Berzosa P, Gonzalez V, et al. Field Evaluation of Malaria Microscopy, Rapid Malaria Tests and Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification in a Rural Hospital in South Western Ethiopia. PLoS One 2015 November 10;10(11):e0142842.

Ledermann DW. Laveran, Marchiafava and paludism. Rev Chilena Infectol 2008 June 01;25(3):216-221.

Zimmerman PA, Howes RE. Malaria diagnosis for malaria elimination. Curr Opin Infect Dis 2015;28(5):446-454.

Karl S, David M, Moore L, Grimberg BT, Michon P, Mueller I, et al. Enhanced detection of gametocytes by magnetic deposition microscopy predicts higher potential for Plasmodium falciparum transmission. Malaria journal 2008;7(1):66.

Zimmerman PA, Thomson JM, Fujioka H, Collins WE, Zborowski M. Diagnosis of malaria by magnetic deposition microscopy. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2006;74(4):568-572.

Ahmad A, Verma AK, Krishna S, Sharma A, Singh N, Bharti PK. Plasmodium falciparum glutamate dehydrogenase is genetically conserved across eight malaria endemic states of India: Exploring new avenues of malaria elimination. PloS one 2019;14(6):e0218210.

Krampa FD, Aniweh Y, Kanyong P, Awandare GA. Recent Advances in the Development of Biosensors for Malaria Diagnosis. Sensors 2020;20(3):799.

Okell LC, Ghani AC, Lyons E, Drakeley CJ. Submicroscopic infection in Plasmodium falciparum-endemic populations: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Infect Dis 2009;200(10):1509-1517.

Shekalaghe SA, Teun Bousema J, Kunei KK, Lushino P, Masokoto A, Wolters LR, et al. Submicroscopic Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte carriage is common in an area of low and seasonal transmission in Tanzania. Tropical Medicine & International Health 2007;12(4):547-553.

Kobayashi T, Kanyangarara M, Laban NM, Phiri M, Hamapumbu H, Searle KM, et al. Characteristics of subpatent malaria in a pre-elimination setting in Southern Zambia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019;100(2):280-286.

Okell L, Bousema JT, Griffin JT, Oueaogo AL, Ghani A, keley C. Factors determining the occurrence of submicroscopic malaria infections and their relevance for control. Nature communications 2012;3(1):1237.

Snounou G, Viriyakosol S, Jarra W, Thaithong S, Brown KN. Identification of the four human malaria parasite species in field samples by the polymerase chain reaction and detection of a high prevalence of mixed infections. Mol Biochem Parasitol 1993;58(2):283-292.

Grossenbacher B, Holzschuh A, Hofmann NE, Omar KA, Stuck L, Fakih BS, et al. Molecular methods for tracking residual Plasmodium falciparum transmission in a close-to-elimination setting in Zanzibar. Malaria Journal 2020;19(1):1-12.

Karl S, David M, Moore L, Grimberg BT, Michon P, Mueller I, et al. Enhanced detection of gametocytes by magnetic deposition microscopy predicts higher potential for Plasmodium falciparum transmission. Malaria journal 2008;7(1):66.

Ley B, Thriemer K. A novel generation of hemozoin based malaria diagnostics show promising performance. EClinicalMedicine 2020;22.

Kumar R, Verma AK, Shrivas S, Thota P, Singh MP, Rajasubramaniam S, et al. First successful field evaluation of new, one-minute haemozoin-based malaria diagnostic device. EClinicalMedicine 2020; 22:100347.

Publicado

26-02-2021